They say that it is useless to reinvent the wheel – everything has already been invented before us. So it is with an internal combustion engine. It is constantly being improved, but the principle of operation has remained the same for many years. And problems too. Powertrain malfunctions affect everyone, and misfires are not the last on a long list of possible troubles.
To understand what misfire is, you need to understand how the cylinders work in the engine. In a nutshell, the energy of the fuel turns into the force of motion in the cylinders. The fuel is ignited there and makes the cylinders go around the cylinder. During a misfire, the fuel / air mixture in one or more cylinders ignites separately from the others or does not ignite at all. Failure of one or several cylinders dramatically reduces engine power, increasing fuel consumption.
Among the many reasons for the ignition malfunctioning, the main ones are:
Ignition misfires can occur both against the background of a simple defect in the spark plug, and due to the failure of an entire unit of the power unit. To understand what is happening with the car, it is important to know how to determine the misfire. Depending on the presence of an ECU in the car, diagnostics can be carried out in two ways.
It is quite easy to diagnose a malfunction using an ECU. Connect the auto-tester using the OBD connector and find the decoding of the detected errors. Codes P0301, P0302, P0303, P0304 indicate problems in one of the four cylinders, armored wires, candles or gaskets associated with them in accordance with the last digit of the code. If the tester shows error P0300, then you need to check the entire system as a whole, including filters and the composition of the combustible mixture. Codes P0201, P0202, P0203, P0204, etc. indicate malfunctions in the injectors. (according to the number of cylinders in the power unit). Code P0400 describes a problem in the exhaust manifold.
Domestic models are often equipped with old-generation ECUs. It is better to change such a system in authorized service centers for an updated one that is compatible with the electronics of the car as a whole. Modern blocks make it easy to detect misfire in specific cylinders.
It is difficult to diagnose misfire in the absence of an ECU. Since a pair of cylinders can fail at once, each of them will have to be checked manually. To inspect the condition of the cylinders and piston rings, it is necessary to dismantle the valve covers. During the examination, it is also important to make sure that the armored wires, candles and electronic parts are working.
Use an ohmmeter to measure electrical resistance in high voltage wires. If the values are not valid, the wires must be replaced. In addition, you should check the condition of the fuel pump and measure the compression indicators in the cylinders. A carburettor-type motor requires special diagnostics directly from the carburettor.
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